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梅益与《钢铁是怎样炼成的》
作者:刘德有    发布日期:2021-09-18    来源:光明网-《光明日报》
 

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MEIYITONGZHISHIGUANGDONGCHAOZHOUREN,TAYUANMINGCHENSHAOQING,CHUSHENGZAIYIGEPUTONGDESHIMINJIATING。1929NIAN,TAKAORUSHANGHAIZHONGGUOGONGXUE,ZAIXIAOXUEXIQIJIAN,SHOUDAOGEMINGSIXIANGDEYINGXIANG。1931NIANKAORUZHONGGUODAXUE。MEIYIQINGSHAONIANSHIQIKEKUXUEXI,BOLANQUNSHU。JINGUANDANGSHIYISHIWUZHE、SHENGHUOJIONGPO,RENGJIANCHIZIXUEYINGYU,WEIRIHOUDEFANYISHENGYADIANDINGLEJICHU。CONG1934NIANKAISHI,TAZAIBEIPINGDE《CHENBAO》、TIANJINDE《YONGBAO》、SHANGHAIDE《SHENBAO》DENGBAOZHIDEFUKANHEKANWUSHANGFABIAOSANWENHEYIZUO,BINGYICIWEISHENG。1935NIAN,ZAIBEIPINGCANJIALEZHONGGUOZUOYIZUOJIALIANMENG,TONGNIANDI,TASHOUDANGZUZHIWEIPAIZHUANWANGSHANGHAI“ZUOLIAN”HEWENHUAJIEJIUGUOHUIGONGZUO,YUSHANGHAI“ZUOLIAN”DEFUZERENGONGTONGBIANJIJIGUANKANWU《MEIZHOUWENXUE》。1937NIAN8YUE,MEIYIJIARULEZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANG。

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MEIYITONGZHIZAIWENZHANGZHONGSHUO,1938NIANKANGZHANSHI,TAZAISHANGHAIDIXIADANGWENWEIGONGZUO。YOUYITIAN,LIUSHAOWENTONGZHIDAIYIBENSHULAIKANTA。ZHEIBENSHU,JIUSHINIUYUEGUOJICHUBANSHE1937NIANCHUBANDE《GANGTIESHIZENYANGLIANCHENGDE》YINGYIBEN。LIUSHAOWENDUITASHUO:“ZHEISHIYIBENHAOSHU,MIAOXIEYIGESULIANQINGNIANWEISHIXIANGONGCHANZHUYILIXIANGJINXINGLEJIANKUZHUOJUEDEDOUZHENG,ZHEIDUIWOGUOQINGNIANYOUHENDADEJIAOYUYIYI。QINGNIBAZHEIZUOWEIDANGJIAOJINIDEYIXIANGRENWU,BATAFANYICHULAI。”MEIYITONGZHIGAOXINGDIJIESHOULEZHEIYIRENWU,DANYOUYUSHANGHAIDANGSHIYICHENG“GUDAO”,ZAIJIANKUDEHUANJINGXIA,TAYAOTONGSHIQUWANCHENGDANGJIAOBANDEQITAJIXIANGRENWU,SUOYIZHINENGSHIYISHICHUO,QIANHOUHUALEJIN5NIANSHIJIANCAIYIWAN,JIAOJIXINZHISHUDIANCHUBAN。MEIYITONGZHIHAISHUO,TAZAIYISHUDEGUOCHENGZHONGCENGDEDAOJIANGCHUNFANGTONGZHI(XINZHONGGUOCHENGLIHOU,CHURENZHONGGONGZHONGYANGMAENLIESIZHUZUOBIANYIJUFUJUZHANG)DEHENDABANGZHU。DANGSHI,JIANGCHUNFANGTONGZHIZAISULIANDETASISHEGONGZUO,ZUOWEIYANHU,CONGSHIDIXIADANGDEHUODONG,DANTACHOUKONGYONGEWENBANZIXIDIXIAOYUELEMEIYITONGZHIDEYIBEN。YINGYIZHESHANJIEDEBUFEN,YEZUOLEBUCHONG。

MEIYITONGZHIHAITANLETAYISHUDETIHUI,SHUOTAYUDAODEZUIDAKUNNANSHIDUIZUOPINSUOMIAOXIEDEXUDUOSHIWU,TEBIESHISULIANHONGJUNDEZHANDOUSHENGHUOHENBUSHUXI。DANGSHITAZHIYOUERSHIJISUI,WANQUANQUEFADUIAOSITELUOFUSIJISUOJINGLIDESHEHUIHUANJINGHESHENGHUOFANGSHIDEQINSHENTIYAN。TARENWEI,“YIBUHAODEWENXUEYIBEN,BUJINYAOQIUYIZHEYAOYOUYUYANXIUYANGHEYISHUXIUYANG,GENGZHONGYAODESHIYAOYIZHESHUXIZUOJIABENREN,SHUXIZUOJIADESHEHUIJINGLIHETASUOCHUDESHIDAIBEIJING,SHUXIZUOJIADECHUANGZUOSHOUFADENG,ZHEIXIESHITIGAOYIBENDEYISHUSHUIPINGDEZHONGYAOBAOZHENG。”MEIYITONGZHISHUO,DANGSHITAWEIYIDEYOULITIAOJIANJIUSHIZUOZHEHEYIZHEDOUGONGTONGHUAIZHEWEIGONGCHANZHUYISHIYEFENDOUDELIXIANG,GONGTONGREAISHIJIESHANGDIYIGEYOUGONGRENJIEJIZHANGWOZHENGQUANDEGUOJIA。ZHEIGONGTONGDELICHANGHEGANQING,SHIYIZHEDUIZUOZHESUOMIAOXIEDESHENGHUOHEDOUZHENGBIJIAORONGYITIHUIHELIJIE,YINERSHIYIWENYEBIJIAONENGGOUDAYICHUANSHEN。

MEIYITONGZHISHUO,TADELINGYIGEKUNNANSHICONGYINGYIBENZHUANYI,SHIYIWENDE“XIN”HE“DA”SHOUDAOLEXIANZHI。TASHUO,KAOLVDAOMINZUYUYANDEYINSU,YIWENDE“XIN”HE“DA”YEBUSHIJUEDUIDE。WENXUEYIBENBUYINGDANGDANCHUNSHIYIZHONGJINGQUEDEFUZHIPIN,TAJIYAOQIUZHUNQUEXING,YOUYAOQIUYISHUXING。WENXUEYIBENZUIHAOSHIZHIJIECONGYUANWENYICHU,XIAOGUOJIAOHAO,JINGGUOZHUANYIHOU,ZONGBUNENGHENHAODICHUANSHEN。TARENWEI,TADEZHONGYIBENYOUYUSHIZHUANYIDE,YINCIZAICHONGFENCHUANDAYUANZHUDEYISHUFENGGESHANG“HENKENENGYOUQUEXIAN”。DAN,TAKAOLVDAOYIBENDEZHUYAODUZHESHIQINGNIANREN,BAOKUOWENHUASHUIPINGBUGAODEZHIYEQINGNIAN,YINCIBUSHIJINKOUZIMIAN、SIYIYINGYI,ERJINKENENGSHIYIWENTONGSHUNLIUCHANG,RANGDUZHENENGGOUDUXIAQU。WEILEDADAOZHEIYIMUDE,MEIYITONGZHIDUIYIWENCENGDUOCIJINXINGGUOXIUGAI,DANTAQIANXUDISHUO:“YIHANDESHIYIZHIMEIYOUZUOHAO。”

WOJIEDAOMEIYITONGZHIDEXINHEGAOZIHOU,YU10YUE24RIXIELEHUIXIN,ZAIXINZHONGXIEDAO:“WOZUOWEIDIYIGEDUZHEBAIDUDAZUO,SHENSHOUGANDONG,QIESHOUYIFEIQIAN。《FANGWENJI》BUJINGAOSURENMENHENDUOGUOQUCONGWEIGONGKAIDESHISHI,ERQIEJIANGSHIDUZHELEJIELAOYIBEIFANYIJIAXINZHONGGUOCHENGLIQIANZAIBAIQUJIANKUFENDOUDEBUPINGFANJINGLI。WOXIANGXIN,ZHEIPIANWENZHANGYIDINGHUIGUWUZHENGZAIWEIJIANSHESHEHUIZHUYIJINGSHENWENMINGERNULIFENDOUDEGUANGDADUZHE,TEBIESHIQINGNIANDUZHE。”

WU

MEIYITONGZHIZAITAXIEDENEIPIANWENZHANGZHONGTIDAOTACENGDUOCIDUIYIWENZUOGUOXIAOGAI,BUJINRUCI,JUSHUOXINZHONGGUOCHENGLIHOU,RENMINWENXUECHUBANSHEHAIQINGEWENFANYIJIALIULIAOYITONGZHIGENJUYUANBENXIAOYUEGUOYIBIAN。WOCENGKANGUORENMINWENXUECHUBANSHE1989NIAN12YUEDI5BANDE《GANGTIESHIZENYANGLIANCHENGDE》。BAOERDENEIDUANMINGYANYIJINGBUSHIWOZAIDALIANSHIKANDAODEYIWEN,YIBEIGAIWEI:

RENZUIBAOGUIDESHISHENGMING。SHENGMINGSHUYURENZHIYOUYICI。RENDEYISHENGYINGDANGZHEIYANGDUGUO:DANGHUISHOUWANGSHIDESHIHOU,TABUHUIYINWEIXUDUNIANHUAERHUIHEN,YEBUHUIYINWEILIULIUWUWEIERXIUKUI;ZAILINSIDESHIHOU,TANENGGOUSHUO:“WODEZHENGGESHENGMINGHEQUANBUJINGLI,DOUYIJINGXIANJILESHIJIESHANGZUIZHUANGLIDESHIYE——WEIRENLEIDEJIEFANGERDOUZHENG。”

ZUIJIN,WOHAIYOUJIHUIKANDAOYILINCHUBANSHEYU1999NIAN4YUEDI5CIYINSHUADEXINBAN《GANGTIESHIZENYANGLIANCHENGDE》。BAOERDENEIDUANMINGYANYOUZUOLERUXIADEGAIYI:

RENZUIBAOGUIDESHISHENGMING。SHENGMINGSHUYURENZHIYOUYICI。RENDEYISHENGYINGDANGZHEIYANGDUGUO:DANGTAHUISHOUWANGSHIDESHIHOU,BUHUIYINWEILIULIUWUWEI、XUDUNIANHUAERHUIHEN,YEBUHUIYINWEIWEIRENBEILIE、SHENGHUOYONGSUERKUIJIU。ZHEIYANG,ZAILINZHONGDESHIHOU,TAJIUNENGGOUSHUO:“WOYIBAZIJIDEZHENGGEDESHENGMINGHEQUANBUDEJINGLIXIANJILESHIJIESHANGZUIZHUANGLIDESHIYE——WEIRENLEIDEJIEFANGERFENDOU。”

ZHEIYIBANDEYIZHECAOMANXIHEWANGZHIDITONGZHIZAI《YIXU》ZHONGXIEDAO:“LIJIANGCHUBANSHE1994NIAN9YUECHUBANDEXINYIBENZHONG,HUANGSHUNANXIANSHENGDUIZHEIDUANMINGYANZUOLEGAIDONG,TARENWEI‘LIULIUWUWEI’SIZIHAIMEIYOUBIAODACHUYUANWENDEQUANBUNEIRONG,YINWEICONGBAOERMOMOSISUORENSHENGDEYIYI,NAOZILICHUXIANZHEIDUANMINGYANDEJINBEIJINGHEYUANBEIJINGLAIKAOLV,YINGDANGBATALIJIEWEIDUIQUANSHUSIXIANGDEZONGJIE。BAOERSUOFANDUIDEBUJINJINSHIXUDUNIANHUA、LIULIUWUWEI,TAGENGFANDUIBEIBIHEYONGSU。JUCI,HUANGSHUNANXIANSHENGJIANGYUANYIWENZHONGDE‘LIULIUWUWEI’GAICHENG‘BEIBIYONGSU’。”“WOMENJUEDE,HUANGSHUNANXIANSHENGDEKANFABUWUDAOLI。YINER,ZAIFANYIZHEIDUANMINGYANSHI,WOMENJIEYONGLEMEIYIXIANSHENGDEYIWENZUOWEIJICHU,XISHOULEHUANGSHUNANXIANSHENGDESIXIANG,CONGWENZISHANGZUOLEXINDECHULI。”

WUHU!HENWOBUDONGEWEN,WUFACANZHAOYUANWENHEDUIYIWEN,YEWUFADUIXINYIWENSHIFOUZHONGSHIYUYUANWENFABIAOYILUN。JINGUANZHEIJIZHONGFANYIGEYOUQIANQIU,BICIZHIJIANYOUXIEWEIMIAODECHAYI,SHENZHIKEYISHUOTAMEN“DATONGXIAOYI”,DANBUZHIWEISHENME,WOZHIJINRENGDUIZAONIANZAIDALIANKANDAODEMEIYITONGZHIDEYIWENGANDAOWUBIQINQIE。ZHEI,YEXUSHIYIZHONGHUAIJIUZHIQING,HUOZHETAZAOYICHENGWEIWOSIXIANGHEGANQINGSHENGHUODEYIBUFEN,“GENSHENDIGU”DAONANYIGAIBIANDECHENGDUBA。

MOLE,SHUNBIANSHUOYIXIA。ZUIJINWOCHAYUELESANZHONGRIWENBANDE《GANGTIESHIZENYANGLIANCHENGDE》(1950NIAN4YUEKEXUESHECHUBANDESHANBENLIANGJIDEYIBEN、1955NIAN12YUEYANBOSHUDIANCHUBANDEJINZIXINGYANDEYIBEN、1956NIAN6YUECHUBANDEXINCHAOSHEDEZHONGCUNRONGDEYIBEN),FAXIANBAOERNEIJUMINGYANDEFANYI,JIEJINHUANGSHUNANXIANSHENGDELIJIE。XIANGENJUYANBOSHUDIANDEYIBENSHIYIRUXIA:

RENZUIBAOGUIDESHISHENGMING。SHENGMINGYURENZHIYOUYICIERYI。YIGERENDESHENGMINGYINGDANGZHEIYANGDUGUO:DANGTAHUISHOUWANGSHISHI,BUHUIYINXUDUNIANHUAERHUIHEN,YEBUHUIYINBEISUWULIAOERXIUKUI。LINSI,TANENGGOUSHUO:“WOZHENGGEDESHENGMINGHEQUANBUJINGLI,DOUYIJINGXIANJISHIJIESHANGZUIZHUANGLIDESHIYE——WEIRENLEIDEJIEFANGERDOUZHENG。”

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